Maternity leave vs. FMLA leave
There are so many decisions to make when starting a family. If you’re employed, learning about your work’s maternity leave policy and finding out if they are covered by the Federal Family Medical Leave Act provisions is the first step toward knowing what your benefits are.
One of the most important things to research when you are preparing to start a family is your company’s maternity leave policy. As soon as you are comfortable sharing news of your pregnancy or impending adoption with your employer, you should schedule a meeting with the Human Resources (HR) director. She will be able to answer your questions about the specifics of your employer's maternity leave policy, such as the amount of paid or unpaid leave you are entitled to take, the length of time you can be away from your job and how to apply for benefits.
There are generally two types of leave for new parents to consider — maternity leave and leave that falls under the Family Medical Leave Act (FMLA).
Maternity leave — also called parental or family leave — is the time a mother (or father) takes off from work for the birth or adoption of a child. Paid maternity leave is still the exception in the United States although it is the norm in many other countries. Schedule an appointment with the HR department to find out what your company’s policies are. In most cases your company will require you to use a combination of sick leave, personal days, vacation days, short-term disability (STD), and unpaid family leave for your time away from work. It's important to research your employer’s specific guidelines and calculate your available sick, personal and vacation days to get an idea of how much paid leave you are likely to have "in the bank." Keep in mind that you will most likely need some of your sick or personal days during your pregnancy for prenatal checkups.
This meeting is also a good time to ask how much unpaid time the company will let you take while holding your job for your return. Don't assume that the answers are cast in stone. Company policies can change so check in periodically to confirm that the information you received in your initial meeting is still valid when you're ready to go on leave. It is very important to stay on top of issues related to your maternity leave in order to keep from losing benefits — or your job.
Family Medical Leave Act (FMLA)
In 1993 the federal government passed the Family Medical Leave act which mandates unpaid job-protected leave for up to 12 weeks a year. The FMLA only applies to employers with 50 or more employees, except for government agencies and elementary and secondary schools, which are covered regardless of number of employees. There are also requirements that must be met by the employee in order to be covered by the FMLA. You must also have worked for the employer for a minimum of 12 months — not necessarily consecutively — and have worked at least 1,250 hours within the last 12 months to be eligible. Lastly, your employer must have more than 50 employees who work within 75 miles of your worksite in order to be covered by the FMLA.
Leave that falls under the FMLA can be taken for the birth and/or bonding period with a newborn, the placement of an adoptive child in your home or placement of a foster child. A total of 12 weeks can be taken in a 12-month period, but needs to be taken as a continuous block of leave. Some states have passed their own FMLAs that have lower thresholds for employer coverage. You will need to research your home state to see if that is the case.
Maternity leave will likely offer you a combination of paid and unpaid leave. All leave mandated by FMLA is unpaid.
How to negotiate maternity leave
As soon as you are comfortable sharing your pregnancy or impending adoption with your employer, you should begin the process of negotiating your maternity leave. By taking the lead, you not only put yourself in a better bargaining position, but also show that you are a dedicated employee who wants to cover all bases. Be reasonable with what you expect, but consider offering options to help with transitions. Will you be able to help train your temporary replacement? Are you available for conference calls during your leave? What steps can you take to ease the transition for your employer? Think about these situations before you begin negotiating.
By planning ahead for your maternity leave, you can ensure that the benefits you receive are the maximum you are entitled to, and gain the most time for you and your family to bond.