Skin cancer is the most common of all cancers, with more than two million cases diagnosed in the US each year. The good news? Most skin cancers are relatively easily to treat when detected early. Protect yourself with the help of these skin cancer warning signs.
Understanding skin cancer
There are two main types of skin cancers, including basal and squamous cell skin cancers and melanomas:
- Basal and squamous cell skin cancers are the most common form of skin cancer, and are non-melanoma.
- Melanomas are cancers that develop from melanocytes (the cells that produce our skin color). According to the American Cancer Society (ACS) Melanoma accounts for less than 5% of skin cancers, and is also the cause of most skin cancer deaths. Thankfully, it’s usually curable when detected in its early stages.
Most skin cancers are triggered by too much exposure to ultraviolet (UV) rays, be it from natural sunlight or tanning booths. Luckily, most skin cancers are easy to recognize and slow-growing.
Know your ABCs
St Joseph Hospital dermatologist Dr Matthew Goodman recommends checking your entire body for moles or suspicious spots at last once a year. “Melanoma can be anywhere; between your toes, under your tongue, or in and around your private areas. It’s not limited to your arms, legs and head,” he said.
Dr Goodman recommends looking for mole or skin pigment spots that fit into the “ABCDE” criteria:
A is for Asymmetry
“When looking at the spots or moles, you want to make sure that if you were to cut it in half, it would be a mirror image,” Dr Goodman said.
B is for Border
“Any spot or mole that has an irregular, scalloped or poorly defined border could be a potential risk,” said Dr Goodman.
C is for Coloration
“You want your mole to be a solid color,” Dr Goodman explained. “It shouldn’t vary in color from one area to another or have different shades of color. Different shades of browns, blues, reds, whites and blacks are usually a cause for concern.”
D is for Diameter
“Ideally, you want any mole or pigmented spot to be smaller than the size of a pencil eraser,” Dr Goodman said. “Melanoma is usually greater than six millimeters across (about a quarter inch) when it’s found and diagnosed, but it can also be smaller.
E is for Evolution
“If a mole or spot changes in size, shape and color over any given amount of time, you should consult a physician,” Dr Goodman advised.
Other warning signs
Pink bumps — Dr Goodman advises patients be aware of any pink bumps that last more than four weeks. “These pink bumps often are mistaken for pimples in their early stages, but may actually be basal or squamous cell carcinoma.”
Visible sores — According to the ACS Web site, skin cancers may look like sores that don’t quite heal. For example, a long-lasting sore in the mouth could be a sign of oral cancer. Sores on the penis or vagina can also be signs of the early stages of cancer. Be sure to have any sores checked out immediately by a doctor, especially if you smoke, chew tobacco or heavily consume alcohol.
Change in sensation — Take note of any moles, warts or freckles that feel itchy, tender or painful.
Refer to this body mole map from the American Academy of Dermatology to help guide you through your skin evaluation.