The smallpox vaccine

Smallpox is a highly contagious infection characterized by high fever and an extensive rash. The sometimes fatal disease is transmitted through direct contact. Smallpox outbreaks have occurred from time to time for thousands of years but have been eradicated due to a successful worldwide vaccination program.

Little girl with smallpoxWhat is smallpox?

Smallpox is a serious, highly contagious infection caused by the variola virus. It’s marked by a severe fever and a distinct skin rash. Many smallpox survivors have permanent scarring over
large areas of their bodies. The only way to prevent the disease is to receive the smallpox vaccine.

Who gets it?

Routine vaccination for the disease stopped in 1980, after the disease was deemed to be eradicated by the World Health Organization (the last known case in the United States was in 1949). Until
then, children were routinely given the vaccine as part of their immunization schedules. The one-dose vaccine is currently available to scientists and doctors working with the virus in a research

What are the symptoms?

Smallpox is characterized by a high fever and extensive rash. A person with smallpox will stay contagious until the last scab of the rash falls off.

Vaccine recommendations

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the World Health Organization recommend the vaccine for people working with the disease. The vaccine can cause serious side effects (such as
vomiting, diarrhea and fever) in people with compromised immune systems and in pregnant women. A small percentage of people also report nerve damage from the vaccine.

What you need to know

Vaccination within three days of exposure to the disease will completely prevent or seriously decrease the health risks of smallpox. The United States currently has enough of the vaccine stockpiled
to vaccinate every citizen in the event of a smallpox outbreak.


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