What to eat before and after workouts to reduce muscle soreness
Muscle soreness — no one likes it, but everyone gets it. But you don't have to sit back and take the pain — there are ways you can naturally reduce its effects.
Delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) is soreness that develops after any activity that forces the muscles to eccentrically contract, resulting in micro-tears that must then rebuild and repair. It's important to note, however, that the soreness doesn't actually come from the tears, but from the inflammation that takes place as a result of the micro-tears and the subsequent healing process.
An eccentric contraction occurs when the muscle lengthens and contracts at the same time. It's often considered the "return to start" movement during strength training. For instance, during a bicep curl, the eccentric contraction takes place as you "return to start" and lower the dumbbells from your shoulders. During a squat, the eccentric contraction occurs as you "return to start" by rising up out of a squat to a standing position. When working against weight, the strength and control of the muscles is particularly taxing during this lengthening phase, placing stress on the muscles engaged.
But, it's not just strength training that results in muscular micro-tears and DOMS. Any unfamiliar exercise, whether it's raking your yard or walking down a hill, can tax the muscles to the point of post-exercise soreness. And while you might think you'd be better off to avoid such stress altogether, you'd be wrong. The micro-tears that take place during exercise are actually beneficial. These tears must rebuild and repair, and it's during this process that muscle fibers grow in length and overall size. This doesn't mean you'll get "big and bulky" — it just means you'll improve your muscular health, which plays an important part in functional fitness, balance, coordination, metabolism and body composition.
The good news is, you don't have to just sit back and take the soreness, either. Dr. Holly Lucille, naturopathic doctor and CrossFit athlete and coach, understands that while DOMS won't kill you, it can certainly slow you down. There are ways you can minimize the pain while still pursuing an active lifestyle.
What to do before you exercise to reduce muscle soreness
Dr. Lucille suggests starting your DOMS-reduction protocol before you even step foot in the gym or on the trail. "The following supplements, when taken 30 to 60 minutes before exercise, can delay the time to exhaustion during exercise while also enhancing muscle integrity and protecting against oxidative stress."
- CoQ10 as ubiquinol. "Research published in the European Journal of Nutrition reports that CoQ10 modulates the inflammatory signaling that can lead to muscle damage. This potent antioxidant also prevents exercise-induced oxidative damage by scavenging free radicals."
- Vitamin C. "Researchers at Arizona State University recently found that supplementing vitamin C in patients with marginal vitamin C levels can improve compliance with an exercise program by alleviating the fatigue and malaise that may manifest from a deficiency."
- Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs). "Many athletes swear by pre-workout BCAAs to improve exercise performance and reduce muscle breakdown. While there is little evidence that this combination of valine, leucine and isoleucine can help exercisers go longer or stronger, a number of studies support BCAAs as a way to reduce muscle breakdown and DOMS."
It's also important to note that all of these nutrients can be found in food sources. CoQ10 can be found in meat, poultry and fish; vitamin C is abundant in citrus, peppers and kiwi; and BCAAs are readily available in meats, eggs and even milk. If you're not carefully monitoring your intake to ensure you're eating appropriate amounts prior to a workout, you may not reap the benefits of reduced DOMS, making supplementation an easier soreness-flagging option.
What to do after you exercise
Once your workout is done, there are ways to further reduce the effects of DOMS. Dr. Lucille swears by the addition of BCM-95 curcumin found in the product Curamin as a solution to CrossFit soreness, but that's not the only thing on her list:
- D-Ribose. "This naturally occurring five-carbon sugar is made by healthy muscle tissue and provides a key building block of ATP. It’s ATP that provides the muscles with energy during exercise and levels must be restored during recovery. Research shows that supplementing with ribose can do just that."
- Curcumin. "Responsible for giving the curry spice turmeric its vibrant yellow hue, curcumin possesses powerful anti-inflammatory capabilities. Researchers at the University of South Carolina note that curcumin can help offset post-workout muscle damage and the resulting soreness. But there’s one glitch: Studies show that curcumin is rapidly metabolized, conjugated in the liver and excreted from the body. It also lacks solubility. As a result, curcumin is poorly absorbed and has limited systemic bioavailability. Fortunately, researchers have developed several very unique forms of curcumin, which boast up to 29-fold increased absorption and bioavailability. I recommend a combination of finely milled curcumin and turmeric oil called BCM-95."
- Ginger. "Traditionally used to soothe a queasy stomach, a post-exercise dose of supplemental ginger can also reduce DOMS. Studies conducted at the University of Sydney, Australia, have found that ginger is just as effective as aspirin at inhibiting COX-2 and reducing pain."
- A meal with a 1:2 ratio of protein to carbohydrates. "Research has shown that ingesting a 1:2 ratio of protein to carbohydrates within 30 minutes of an exercise session can allow for a more rapid recovery of any muscle damage."
As long as you're not lactose intolerant, chocolate milk or a combination of milk and cereal are great post-exercise meals because they naturally deliver the right combination of carbohydrates and proteins, along with the perfect ratio of the BCAAs leucine, isoleucine and valine to enhance muscle recovery.
Most importanty: Keep moving
The most important thing to remember is that DOMS is not going to kill you, and as long as you respect the soreness, it won't lead to further injury. In other words, keep moving, but take things slowly. If you're experiencing soreness, you may not want to do another high-intensity workout for a day or two, but instead take a walk with a friend or enjoy a yoga class. DOMS will naturally dissipate within three to seven days, and continuing to exercise at a lower intensity during this process can actually improve blood flow to the inflamed muscles and speed recovery time.