Screen And Detect Cancer

Though no one is immune to cancer, early detection through regular screenings can go a long way toward improving survival rates.


Why early detection matters

Screening for cancer isn't new, but many of the reasons you should pay attention are. Research suggests that regular screening is one of the most successful tools in preventing the disease. What's more, with advances in technology, screening has been shown to effectively detect pre-cancerous cells before they metastasize, thereby slashing a person's cancer risk by almost half. (This is true even if there's a predisposition to developing the disease.)

Who should be screened

While everyone should be vigilant about self-examination (especially skin and breast checks), screening becomes even more important as we age and or if we are part of high-risk groups such as:

  • People with a family history of a specific cancer
  • Seniors
  • Certain ethnic groups
  • Smokers
  • Those who are obese or physically inactive
  • Those who eat unhealthfully
  • People with large moles or fair skin

If you're among any of these groups, talk to your doctor immediately to learn about your risks and to take advantage of any screening tests that might be available.

Types of tests

Cancer screening for women

Mammograms

Who: All women over 40

 

What: An MRI of the soft tissue of the breasts

 

When: Yearly

 

Why: Women at increased risk may not be able to catch pre-cancerous lumps with just a self-exam.

Pap

Who: All women who are sexually active.

 

What: A test and pelvic examination that tests for STDs and precancerous cells

 

When: Depending on your risk factors, every one to three years

 

Why: The most important risk factor for developing cervical cancer is infection with human papilloma virus (HPV), a sexually transmitted disease. Detecting it early can help prevent the development of cervical, uterine, anal and ovarian cancers.

Cancer screening for men

Prostate exam

Who: At-risk men over 40

 

What: Two tests -- a digital rectal exam (DRE) performed as a yearly physical checkup, and the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) blood test

 

When: Men should discuss these tests with their doctors if they're at a higher risk of developing prostate cancer. This includes African American men and men who have had a first-degree relative with the disease.

 

Why: Prostate cancer is very treatable when caught early.

Cancer screening for both women and men

Colon and rectal exam

Who: Everyone over 50

 

What: Tests to identify pre-cancerous polyps. Tests include the fecal occult blood test (FOBT), colonoscopy, barium enema, fecal immunochemical test (FIT) and stool test.

 

When: Depending on risk, every year to every five years (talk to your doctor)

 

Why: Colon and rectal cancers are easily treated if they're caught early.

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