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7 Preventable heart disease risk factors

Michele Borboa, MS is a freelance writer and editor specializing in health, fitness, food, lifestyle, and pets. Michele is a health and wellness expert, personal chef, cookbook author, and pet-lover based in Bozeman, Montana. She is also...

Reduce your risk

Though you may associate heart disease with getting older, the American Heart Association recommends that you start assessing your risk factors and taking preventative steps as early as your 20s. You can't change risk factors such as age, gender, race and heredity, but you can do something about the following seven risk factors related to lifestyle.

Risk factor #1: Smoking

Smoking cigarettes tops the list as the most important preventable major risk factor of cardiovascular disease. And not only does smoking do damage to your health, your secondhand smoke harms nonsmokers, including infants and children. According to the American Heart Association, there are nearly 440,000 smokingâ€related deaths every year. Instead of becoming one of the fatal statistics, get involved in a smoking cessation program — you'll be reducing your own risk of heart disease as well as helping to improve the health of your loved ones.

Risk factor #2: Inactivity

Research has shown that acheiving just a moderate level of fitness can reduce your risk of heart disease and extend your life. Further, getting at least 30 minutes of physical activity most days of the week can help lower blood pressure, lower cholesterol and keep your weight at a healthy level — all factors in improving your heart-health. Make your 30 minutes fun — take your dog for a walk, play at the park with your kids, meet a friend at the gym for a fitness class — so you are more likely to make exercise a habit. If needed, start slow with 10 minutes a day and gradually build your stamina up to attain 30 minutes. You'll feel better, look better, and improve the quality — and length — of your life.

Risk factor #3: Diet

Following a healthy diet will decrease your risk of heart disease by lowering your cholesterol and blood pressure as well as help you maintain a healthy weight. Be sure your diet includes fruits, vegetables, whole grains, lean proteins, low-fat dairy, nuts, seeds, legumes and healthy fats like omega-3s and monounsaturated fat. Avoid foods high in saturated and trans fat and limit your intake of fast food or processed foods. Connect with a registered dietician or nutritionist to design a healthy — yet delicious and satisfying — diet plan that will decrease your risk of heart disease and improve your overall health.

Risk factor #4: Stress

Stress on some level is a daily part of life. The way you handle stress, however, makes a significant difference in how stress affects your health and your risk for heart disease. If you deal with stress through overeating, smoking or drinking in excess, or neglecting your health in other ways, you are putting yourself at risk for weight gain, high blood pressure, high cholesterol and heart attack or stroke. Learning to manage your stress or decrease your daily stressors can help you make healthier lifestyle decisions and improve the quality of your life.

Risk factor #5: Alcohol consumption

Though a glass of wine a day has been associated with heart-health, overdoing it can actually raise your risk of a heart attack or stroke. Drinking too much alcohol raises blood pressure, adds empty calories to your diet, can contribute to obesity, and makes losing weight more difficult. If you drink, limit yourself to one drink a day. Keep in mind that one drink is defined as 1-1/2 fluid ounces (fl oz) of 80-proof spirits (such as bourbon, scotch, vodka, gin, etc.), 1 fl oz of 100-proof spirits, 4 fl oz of wine, or 12 fl oz of beer. If you don't drink, don't start. And if you are pregnant, do not drink any alcohol at all.

Risk factor #6: Blood pressure

High blood pressure, also called hypertension, is the single largest risk factor for stroke. Stroke is the No. 3 killer and one of the leading causes of disability in the United States. Easy ways to lower your blood pressure are: lower your salt or sodium intake, exercise, quit smoking, don't drink in excess of a drink a day, and manage your stress. Talk to your doctor about other ways to lower your blood pressure and, if prescribed, take your medications as directed.

Risk factor #7: Cholesterol

High blood cholesterol puts you at an increased risk of heart disease and stroke. A healthy lifestyle including exercise and a nutritious diet that reduces your intake of saturated fat, trans fat and dietary cholesterol (in foods that you eat) can lower your blood cholesterol. In addition, if exercise and diet alone aren't effective in lowering your cholesterol (your total cholesterol should be less than 200mg/dl), you may need to take cholesterol-lowering medication. See your doctor to get a blood test to determine your cholesterol and create an action plan to help you lower it, if your numbers are high.

More ways to take care of your heart


7 Tips to quit smoking
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